Multifamily Construction and Investment Returns in the Southern U.S.

The multifamily construction sector in the Southern United States has shown varying levels of activity and investment potential across states like Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, and Arkansas. This article provides an overview, focusing on preconstruction and construction data within these markets and discussing the potential returns for multifamily construction investments.

The multifamily construction sector in the Southern United States is experiencing significant turbulence due to a combination of elevated interest rates, rising construction and operating costs, and an influx of new supply. States like Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, and Arkansas exhibit varying levels of activity and investment potential, influencing the overall market dynamics and potential returns for multifamily construction investments.

Current Construction Trends

Decline in Construction Starts

  • Forecasted Decline: Multifamily construction starts are expected to fall by 45% in 2024 from their pre-pandemic average and by 70% from their 2022 peak. This significant reduction in new starts will lead to fewer deliveries by 2026, potentially paving the way for a strong recovery in occupancy and rent growth .
  • Impact of Oversupply: Despite the forecasted decline, the Southern U.S. has seen substantial construction activity, particularly in Sun Belt markets such as Texas and Florida. This has led to an oversupply, resulting in flat or declining rents in some regions .

Regional Insights

  • High Job Growth Markets: Markets with large supply pipelines, such as Austin, Dallas, Nashville, and Atlanta, have high job growth projections, which developers have used to anticipate demand for new supply .
  • Balanced Markets: Some areas, like parts of the Midwest and Northeast, are expected to maintain balanced supply-and-demand dynamics, supporting rent growth throughout 2024. However, markets in the Southern U.S. may face more challenges due to oversupply .

Investment Potential and Returns

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Cap Rates and Investment Opportunities

  • Cap Rates: Cap rates for prime multifamily assets have increased slightly due to recent interest rate hikes, pushing up borrowing costs. This has created significant buying opportunities for investors, particularly in regions where cap rates are nearing their peak.
  • Positive Leverage: The Midwest and Northeast regions offer the best opportunity for positive leverage in 2024. Investors in these areas can underwrite to positive leverage more easily due to cap rates being typically 25 to 50 basis points higher than elsewhere, combined with stronger rent growth expectations.

Economic and Regulatory Considerations

  • Regulatory Environments: Local regulatory environments, including rent control policies, climate risks, public safety, and infrastructure, are becoming increasingly important considerations for multifamily investors. These long-term factors are crucial for market selection and underwriting.
  • Economic Drivers: Local and regional economic drivers will continue to favor large secondary markets and most large coastal markets. Despite near-term economic weakness and rising vacancy rates, enough demand is expected to keep average occupancy rates above 94% .

Challenges and Strategic Planning

  • High Costs: The multifamily sector is grappling with high construction and operating costs. Escalating labor and materials costs, along with rising insurance premiums, are significant concerns for developers and investors.
  • Stagnating Rents: The influx of new supply, particularly in Sun Belt markets, is likely to result in stagnating or declining rents. This oversaturation necessitates strategic pricing and positioning of properties to remain competitive.

Overview of Multifamily Construction in the Southern States


Alabama’s multifamily development rates are lower compared to coastal and Midwestern states. The demand for new multifamily housing might not be as strong due to Alabama’s lower home prices and demand, potentially leading to less competition for new developments.


Florida, particularly Miami, is a hotbed for multifamily housing activity. Companies like ANF Group have experienced significant growth, suggesting robust construction activity. The state’s strong economy and population growth make it an attractive market for new development projects.


Louisiana’s multifamily housing market shows moderate growth, without the intense activity seen in top metros. This could indicate a steadier market with less aggressive competition, possibly affecting potential returns but providing a more stable investment environment.


Georgia’s economy is strong, with private companies seeing substantial growth. While not listed among the top metros for multifamily housing, areas like Atlanta are likely experiencing robust preconstruction activities due to their economic expansion.


Arkansas likely sees less multifamily development activity than the coastal cities and the Midwest. However, specific regions within the state might show different levels of activity and potential for multifamily housing investments.

Potential Returns and Market Dynamics

When evaluating returns on multifamily construction, a comprehensive analysis is required. Factors such as local regulatory environments, climate risks, insurance costs, economic conditions, and job market strength play a critical role in shaping potential returns.

ROI and Cash-on-Cash Returns

While specific industry data indicating a range of 14% to 18% return on investment and 5% to 10% cash-on-cash returns for value-added projects was not provided, these figures represent typical targets for investors in multifamily properties. These potential returns are influenced by market dynamics such as vacancy rates, rent growth, new construction, economic drivers, and local demand for housing.

Vacancy Rates and Rent Growth

Vacancy rates and rent growth are significant indicators of a multifamily market’s health. In Florida and Georgia, strong job markets in tech, healthcare, and other industries support demand for multifamily housing, which can lead to positive rent growth and contribute to overall returns.

New Construction and Supply

The supply of new multifamily units can impact investment returns. In states like Florida, an active Preconstruction phase with many projects in the planning stages suggests a highly competitive market that could affect rent prices and ROI.

Economic and Employment Factors

The multifamily market is also affected by broader economic trends. The Southern U.S. has seen economic growth, with private companies expanding, particularly in tech and life sciences. Such growth can drive demand for multifamily housing, supporting investment returns.

Workforce Housing

Demand for workforce housing, especially in regions like New York, remains durable, which may offer more consistent returns. This trend is also relevant to Southern states where economic disparities might create a steady demand for affordable multifamily units.

Interest Rates and Operating Costs

Interest rates and operating costs, including insurance, are rising. These expenses can reduce potential returns by increasing the costs of holding and operating multifamily properties.

Conclusions and Future Outlook

Investors and developers considering multifamily construction projects in the Southern U.S. should take into account a variety of market conditions and economic indicators. The potential for returns exists, but careful analysis and strategic planning are necessary to maximize investment outcomes.

While the industry data provided does not pinpoint exact ROI or cash-on-cash return figures, the trends and insights suggest that opportunities for profitable multifamily construction investments are present, particularly in areas with strong economic drivers and balanced supply-and-demand dynamics.

In conclusion, the multifamily construction market in the Southern United States presents a complex but potentially rewarding investment landscape. By staying informed on regional market dynamics and economic trends, investors can better position themselves to capitalize on the opportunities available in this diverse and evolving sector.

Current Market Data Insights for Multifamily Construction in the U.S.

The multifamily construction sector in the United States is experiencing dynamic shifts, with market data from the fourth quarter of 2023 revealing both challenging and optimistic trends for investors and developers. Here is a synthesis of the most current market data available:

Absorption and Supply Dynamics

Demand Recovery: After a below-average demand year in 2022, the market rebounded in 2023 with robust absorption. The fourth quarter alone saw 58,200 units absorbed, totaling 233,741 units for the year. Southern markets, particularly Houston, Phoenix, and Austin, led in absorption rates.

Supply Surge: Despite 440,000 units delivered in 2023, new supply is expected to jump 53% in 2024. However, higher capital costs and limited financing for new constructions are projected to cause a 42% decrease in new supply by 2025.

Rental Market Performance

Rent Trends: Quarterly rents fell by 1.3% in Q4 of 2023, though year-over-year growth saw a marginal increase of 0.2%. The Midwest and Northeast currently lead in rent growth, with Cincinnati and Chicago at the forefront with a 3.6% increase.

Vacancy Rates: Vacancy rates have risen year-over-year by 92 basis points to 5.8% nationally, surpassing the peak rate of Q1 2014.

Financial and Investment Climate

Investment Sales Volume: The multifamily sector, while still the largest share of U.S. commercial real estate investment sales at 31.8%, experienced a significant downturn. Sales volume declined by 50% year-over-year to $26.9 billion, with an annual decrease of 61.1%.

Capital Inflow: Dallas and Atlanta continued to attract the most capital for the third consecutive year, despite the overall slowdown. San Francisco was the exception among the top 25 markets, with a year-over-year sales volume increase of 12.2%.

Operational and Economic Pressures

Rising Expenses: Multifamily expenses rose by 7.7% year-over-year, driven by a 33.5% increase in insurance costs, marking the fourth consecutive quarter of rising insurance expenses.

Debt Origination: Multifamily debt origination fell by 52% in 2023. While originations declined across all lender groups, government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) and life insurance companies fared slightly better.

Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR): With 36% of upcoming securitized multifamily debt maturities holding a DSCR of 1.25x and only 23% above 2.0x, refinancing could be challenging, especially considering valuation concerns.

Outlook and Strategies

The multifamily construction market is navigating through a complex environment characterized by fluctuating demand, rising operational costs, and a challenging investment sales landscape. However, the resilience in absorption rates, particularly in the Southern markets, indicates sustained interest in multifamily housing. The anticipated slowdown in new supply could eventually lead to a tighter market, potentially benefiting existing properties with higher occupancy rates and stabilized rents.

Investors might find opportunities in the current climate by leveraging rate cuts expected in the latter half of the year and targeting markets like Dallas and Atlanta, which have shown resilience in capital inflows. Additionally, the rise in expenses, notably insurance costs, underscores the need for diligent operational management and strategic long-term planning.

As the multifamily sector continues to adapt to economic changes, stakeholders are encouraged to stay informed with the latest market reports and industry research to make data-driven decisions for investment and development projects.

The information provided offers a snapshot of the multifamily market as it stands based on the latest available data. For investors and developers, these insights are crucial for forecasting trends, assessing risk, and identifying opportunities for growth in the ever-evolving landscape of U.S. real estate.

The State of Multifamily Construction: Navigating the Current Market Trends

In the evolving landscape of residential construction, multifamily units stand at an economic crossroads marked by a confluence of challenges and opportunities. Recent market trends highlight the resilience and adaptability of the industry, especially in the face of labor shortages and fluctuating economic indicators. Here’s a comprehensive look at the current state of multifamily construction, drawing from the latest market data and industry insights.

Macroeconomic Influences on Multifamily Construction

Labor Shortage Impact:

The construction and real estate industries are currently grappling with an ongoing labor shortage. This has resulted in increased labor costs and extended project timelines, further complicating the already intricate process of bringing new multifamily units to market.

Interest Rates and Housing Affordability:

Interest rates, particularly those tied to 30-year mortgages, are historically high, directly affecting housing affordability. The interplay between these rates and the Consumer Price Index hints at a complex navigation ahead for consumers and investors.

Market Trends and Forecasts

Housing Starts and Building Permits:

Data indicates a resilient demand for homeownership, despite economic headwinds, with single-family housing starts showing continued growth. Multifamily starts, however, appear to be leveling off, suggesting a market nearing its peak, potentially due to zoning laws or a decline in the demand for luxury high-rise apartments.

Atlanta Case Study:

Atlanta has been a hot market, but we’re forecasting a slowdown in 2024. This is attributed to the slow pace of rezoning efforts, coupled with an oversupply of luxury apartments. A potential pivot towards more affordable multifamily units could emerge in response to this shift.

Absorption, Supply, and Rental Performance

South Leads in Absorption:

Southern markets, led by Houston, Phoenix, and Austin, dominated in absorption rates with a strong rebound in 2023, indicating robust demand for multifamily housing in these regions.

Anticipated Supply Surge:

Despite a significant number of units delivered in 2023, a 53% surge in new supply is expected in 2024. Yet, the high cost of capital and limited financing available for new construction is likely to temper this surge by 2025.

Rent Trends:

Rents decreased by 1.3% in the fourth quarter of 2023. However, the Midwest and Northeast regions have seen an upswing in rent growth, suggesting regional variances in multifamily rental performance.

Investment and Operational Challenges

Sales Volume Decline:

The multifamily sector, while retaining the largest share of U.S. commercial real estate investment sales, saw a 50% decline in sales volume year-over-year, hinting at a cautious investment climate.

Rising Operational Costs:

Multifamily expenses, including a significant 33.5% increase in insurance costs, are creating additional pressure on operations, potentially affecting profitability and investment returns.

Debt Origination and Refinancing Concerns:

A 52% decline in multifamily debt origination and the challenges associated with refinancing, especially for loans with lower debt service coverage ratios, underscore the financial tightness in the market.

Regional Updates and Economic Growth

Several markets within the Southern U.S. are experiencing distinct economic growth and market trends:

Northwest Arkansas is witnessing unprecedented economic growth and national recognition, primarily due to its affordable cost of living and favorable business climate 3.

Lake Charles, Louisiana is seeing an upswing in the market, driven by expansions within the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry.

The Piedmont Triad area is experiencing growth, attracting residents and businesses with its affordability and location.

Embracing Innovation

The challenges of the current market are fostering a transformative era in the residential construction industry. The strategic employment of advanced software solutions like Buildertrend can improve operational efficiency and adaptability, positioning businesses to thrive amidst uncertainty.


The multifamily construction sector is navigating a period marked by significant economic shifts. The industry must contend with labor shortages, interest rate volatility, and operational cost increases. However, the regional growth in the South, the resilience in absorption rates, and the potential for technological innovation offer pathways to adaptation and success. Industry stakeholders are encouraged to leverage current marketdata, embrace innovative solutions, and remain agile in their strategies to capitalize on the opportunities presented by these evolving trends.

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